List of the Roman Pontiffs
Prepared by John S. Daly


Definite popes = black
Definite anti-popes = red
Status disputed among weighty authorities =
blue
Pope who started illegitimate and later became legitimate =
green



S Peter
S Linus, M
S Anacletus or Cletus1
S Clement, M
S Evaristus, M
S Alexander I, M
S Sixtus I, M
S Telesphorus, M
S Hyginus, M
S Pius I, M
S Anicetus, M
S Soter, M
S Eleutherius, M
S Victor I, M
S Zephyrinus, M
S Calistus I, M
                  S Hippolytus
S Urban I, M
S Pontian, M
S Anterus, M
S Fabian, M
S Cornelius, M                  
Novatian
S Lucius I, M
S Stephen I, M
S Sixtus II, M
S Dionysius
S Felix I, M
S Eutychian, M
S Caius, M
S Marcellinus M
S Marcellus I, M
S Eusebius, M
S Melchiades
S Silvester I
S Mark
S Julius I
Liberius                  
S Felix II
Damasus                  
Ursinus
S Siricius
S Anastasius I
S Innocent I
S Zozimus
S Boniface I                  
Eulalius
S Celestine I
S Sixtus III
S Leo I (the Great)
S Hilary
S Simplicius
S Felix III/II
S Gelasius I
Anastasius II
S Symmachus                  
Lawrence
S Hormisdas
S John I, M
S Felix IV/III
Boniface II                  
Dioscorus
John II
S Agapitus I
S Silverius, M
Vigilius2
Pelagius I
John III
Benedict I
Pelagius II
S Gregory I (the Great)
Sabinian
Boniface III
Boniface IV
S Deusdedit/Adeodatus I
Boniface V
Honorius I
Severinus
John IV
Theodore I
S Martin I, M
S Eugene I3
S Vitalian
Deusdedit/Adeodatus II
Donus
S Agatho
S Leo II
S Benedict II
John V
Conon                  
Theodore, Paschal
S Sergius I
John VI
John VII
Sisinnius
Constantine
S Gregory II
S Gregory III
S Zachary
Stephen4
Stephen II/III
S Paul I                  
Constantine, Philip
Stephen III/IV
Adrian I
S Leo III
Stephen IV/V
S Paschal I
Eugene II
Valentine
Gregory IV                  
John
Sergius II
S Leo IV
Benedict III                  
Anastasius
S Nicholas I (the Great)
Adrian II
John VIII
Marinus I
S Adrian III
Stephen V/VI
Formosus
Boniface VI
Stephen VI/VII
Romanus
Theodore II
John IX
Benedict IV
Leo V                  
Christopher
Sergius III
Anastasius III
Landon
John X
Leo VI
Stephen VII/VIII
John XI
Leo VII
Stephen VIII/IX
Marinus II
Agapitus II
John XII
Leo VIII
Benedict V5
John XIII
Benedict VI                  
Boniface VII
Benedict VII
John XIV6
Boniface VII7
John XV
Gregory V                  
John XVI
Silvester II
John XVII
John XVIII
Sergius IV
Benedict VIII                  
Gregory
John XIX
Benedict IX
Sylvester III
Benedict IX (2nd term)
Gregory VI8
Clement II

Benedict IX (3rd term)
Damasus II
S Leo IX
Victor II
Stephen IX/X                  
Benedict X
Nicholas II
Alexander II                  
Honorius II
S Gregory VII                  
Clement III
B Victor III
B Urban II
Paschal II                  
Theoderic Albert Sylvester IV
Gelasius II                  
Gregory VIII
Callistus II
Honorius II                  
Celestine II
Innocent II                  
Anacletus II, Victor IV
Celestine II
Lucius II
Eugene III
Anastasius
Adrian IV
Alexander III                  
Victor IV, Paschal III, Callistus III, Innocent III
Lucius III
Urban III
Gregory VIII
Clement III
Celestine III
Innocent III
Honorius III
Gregory IX
Celestine IV
Innocent IV
Alexander IV
Urban IV
Clement IV
B Gregory X
B Innocent V
Adrian V
John XXI9
Nicholas III
Martin IV10
Honorius IV
Nicholas IV
S Celestine V
Boniface VIII
Benedict XI
Clement V
John XXII                  
Nicholas V
Benedict XII
Clement VI
Innocent VI
B Urban V

Gregory XI
Urban VI
Boniface IX
Innocent VII
Gregory XII, Clement VII, Benedict XIII,
Alexander V, John XXIII
Martin V
Eugene IV                  
Felix V
Nicholas V
Callistus III
Pius II
PauI II
Sixtus IV
Innocent VIII
Alexander VI11
Pius III
Julius II
Leo X
Adrian VI
Clement VII
Paul III
Julius III
Marcellus II
Paul IV
Pius IV
S Pius V
Gregory XIII
Sixtus V
Urban VII
Gregory XIV
Innocent IX
Clement VIII
Leo XI
Paul V
Gregory XV
Urban VIII
Innocent X
Alexander VII
Clement IX
Clement X
B Innocent XI
Alexander VIII
Innocent XII
Clement XI
Innocent XIII
Benedict XIII
Clement XII
Benedict XIV
Clement XIII
Clement XIV
Pius VI
Pius VII
Leo XII
Pius VIII
Gregory XVI
Ven Pius IX
Leo XIII
S Pius X
Benedict XV
Pius XI
Pius XII

Numbering Anomalies12

John I-XI normal, + one unnumbered antipope, XII began as an antipope and became legitimate, XIII -XV normal, XVI antipope, XVII-XIX normal, then as a result of counting John XIV twice and including John XVI in the count, the next John was styled XXI, John XXII was normal and John XXIII is all but universally held to have been an antipope.
Victor two antipopes are assigned the number IV but there was no legitimate Pope Victor after Victor III.
Felix I was legitimate and II is commonly held to have been illegitimate as his reign occurred in the middle of that of Pope Liberius, but Bellarmine thinks him legitimate and all accord him the number II.
Paschal I and II were legitimate, but III illegitimate. A previous antipope was not numbered. Antipope Paschal III purportedly canonised Charlemagne - the cultus has been maintained in some parts.
Stephen. There were ten valid popes of this name, but the second having died before consecration was not numbered and hence the eight following ones are commonly numbered as if he had not existed.
Benedict. Number V is disputed, number IX had at least 2 and perhaps 3 distinct terms of office, number X was an antipope whose number was not re-used, number XIII was an antipope whose number was re-used.
Boniface. Number VII was an antipope whose number was re-used by another antipope who may have for a brief spell become true pope (though this is disputed). The number was not again re-used. Number IX is disputed.
Gregory. VI and XII are disputed but their numbers were not re-used. VIII was an antipope whose number was re-used.
Alexander V is disputed, being of the Pisan line in the Great Western Schism, but his illegitimacy seems practically certain. Nonetheless his number was not re-used. His brief putative pontificate occurred in the middle of that of Gregory XII, successor of Urban VI at Rome. Hence if by any chance Alexander V was pope, Gregory XII was not. Yet Gregory's number was not re-used either.

Footnotes

  1. For a long time believed to be two separate popes, but this view is now commonly rejected
  2. Illegitimately imposed in place of reigning pope Silverius, but became true pope when the Roman clergy consented to receive him as such after the death or free resignation of Silverius
  3. Began his reign while St Martin was still alive though in exile
  4. Unnumbered and often omitted from papal lists as he died before consecration, but he was a genuine pope
  5. John XII was deposed for immorality and Leo VIII was elected in his place but this was surely invalid Later, when John XII died, the Romans elected Benedict V in his place The latter was subsequently deposed too, but seems to have consented to his deposition If he did so, Leo's pontificate was valid from that point on. If he did not consent, Leo was never a valid pope
  6. Confusion as to the dates of his reign led historians to count him twice Hence the lack of any John XX Strictly speaking John XXI should have been called John XIX to allow for the omission and the fact that John XVI was not a true pope
  7. Another who started as an antipope but who seems to have received the consent of the Roman clergy during a vacancy and thus become for a brief period the true pope
  8. Whether Gregory VI and Clement II were true popes depends on whether the second abdication of Benedict IX was valid, or null owing to force
  9. This pope is said to have selected the number "XXI" for himself, but only 18 previous legitimate popes had been called "John" He must have counted John XIV twice and included antipope John XVI
  10. The numeral was justified by counting "Marinus" and "Martinus" as the same name
  11. The numeral selected counts as a pope the Pisan antipope Alexander V
  12. Of course popes did not necessarily assign their own numbers.

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